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HomeInvestmentSaudi Arabia’s Journey to Sustainable Sovereign Debt

Saudi Arabia’s Journey to Sustainable Sovereign Debt


International public debt exploded in the course of the pandemic. The unprecedented rounds of fiscal stimulus — supposed to mitigate the impression on development — have raised threat ranges and put many nations in monetary jeopardy. Growing and rising nations, particularly, are struggling: IMF analysis places their present debt ranges 20 to 25 proportion factors of GDP larger than pre-2008 and the worldwide monetary disaster. 5 nations defaulted in 2020, and the chance of additional debt crises looms over economies into 2022.

For any nation that points public debt, the priority will not be securing the approaching funding wants however constructing a sustainable sovereign debt with correct asset and legal responsibility administration. This text explores how the Saudi Arabian Nationwide Debt Administration Middle (NDMC) has, regardless of the pandemic, efficiently pursued a well-structured, sustainable debt technique with sturdy threat administration.

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NDMC was established in late 2015. It goals to safe the sustainability of Saudi Arabia’s entry to numerous debt markets worldwide to fund the nation’s finances deficit with the very best price construction. And it ensures infrastructure tasks get the suitable funding.

Though striving for financial diversification through the Saudi 2030 Imaginative and prescient framework, the dominion nonetheless depends closely on oil and stays susceptible to cost volatility. The extreme plunge of oil costs in the course of the pandemic posed many challenges. And through 2020, the NDMC swiftly revised its debt plan and added SAR 100 billion ($26.7 billion) in debt on the budgeted SAR 120 billion, reaching a complete public debt issuance of SAR 220 billion.

So, how did it do that sustainably?


Saudi Arabia’s Whole Excellent Direct Debt, Exterior and Home (SAR Billions)

Finish of 12 months 2024 2023 2022 2021* ​2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
Debt Excellent 938 938 938 938 ​853.5 678 560 443 317 142
Gross Home Product (GDP) 3,697 3,479 3,615 3,207 2,625​ 2,974 2,949 2,582 2,419 2,454
Ratio of Public Debt to GDP 25.4% 26.9% 25.9% 29.2% 32.5% 22.8% 19.0% 17.2% 13.1% 5.8%
Supply: Saudi Arabian Nationwide Debt Administration Middle (NDMC) and Ministry of Finance (MoF).
* As per the newest GDP quantity within the MoF Finances Assertion

Diversifying the Investor Base

When NDMC started issuing debt, the main focus was totally on SAR borrowing and to a lesser extent, US dollar-based borrowing. These issuances noticed common over-subscriptions. NDMC then tapped the euro market and accessed a broader investor base through its €3 billion issuances in 2019 and €1.5 billion in 2021. The most recent was the largest ever negative-yield euro issuance exterior the eurozone, because it issued the three-year debt at minus 0.057% yield. That meant Saudi Arabia was being paid to borrow.

On 30 September 2021, FTSE Russell introduced the inclusion of the native foreign money Sukuk within the FTSE Rising Markets Authorities Bond Index (EMGBI), efficient April 2022. Round a 3rd of the present excellent debt can be included within the index, enormously aiding investor entry, market liquidity, and Saudi debt attractiveness.

One other achievement in 2021 was tapping financing of US $3 billion from Korea Commerce Insurance coverage Company (KSURE). This additionally opens the door for equally large preparations sooner or later. Earlier than that, Saudi Arabia secured an Euler Hermes financing settlement in July 2020 (US $258 million).

To facilitate this financing ecosystem, Saudi Arabia has launched its personal export credit score company (ECA), the Saudi Export-Import Financial institution (Saudi Exim). It additionally embraced a inexperienced financing framework, implementing greatest practices in a quickly creating and more and more regulated surroundings.

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Sovereign Asset and Legal responsibility Administration (SALM)

In addition to diversifying traders, Saudi Arabia carried out larger threat administration requirements and improved the risk-based pricing of its issuances. The Ministry of Finance (MoF) introduced it could construct a unified sovereign asset and legal responsibility administration framework. Importantly, the framework will combine the monetary and non-financial belongings and liabilities.

Among the many advantages of such a framework is its capacity to estimate net-risk publicity. It will place the NDMC to know the chances of pure hedging higher and drive extra correct and knowledgeable selections. Moreover bettering debt sustainability, the framework will assist traders analyze the investments and credit standing businesses attain the suitable credit standing.

Addressing Curiosity Price Threat

NDMC pays shut consideration to rate of interest threat, significantly price visibility. The year-end 2021 numbers reveal that 82.6% of the general debt price is predicated on fastened rates of interest, whereas solely 17.4% is floating (i.e., variable). On common, the floating-rate debt has a a lot decrease maturity than the fixed-debt publicity.

Over 50% of the debt was issued in a comparatively low-interest-rate surroundings, capturing favorable pricing ranges. We’re at present seeing upward steepness within the rate of interest implied ahead curve throughout all durations, which affords NDMC a positive debt valuation. For instance, the period of the general portfolio (once more as of year-end 2021) is 9.52 years. Which means the DV01 metric (the greenback worth change for every foundation level change within the rate of interest yield curve) can be favorable if the rate of interest curve turns steeper. Intuitively, the longer the period of the debt portfolio, the extra delicate it’s to adjustments within the yield curve.

Additionally, the typical period at year-end 2020 stood at round 8.7 years. Extending the typical maturities reduces the liquidity and refinancing dangers, that are typical threat elements for public money owed.

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Managing International Alternate Threat

As of year-end 2021, round 60% of the SAR 938 billion in debt is SAR-denominated, whereas 40% is non-SAR. The US greenback represents virtually all of the non-SAR publicity (the euro contains nearly 2% of the whole debt).

Whereas the SAR foreign money is pegged to the US greenback, the Saudi Central Financial institution (SAMA) must have enough FX reserves to defend the peg and combat any potential instability within the trade charge. Considerably mitigating such threat, SAMA maintains a stable web overseas asset of US $447 billion as of November 2021, with overseas money and deposit amounting to US $140 billion.

Upcoming Challenges for Saudi Arabia

By NDMC, Saudi Arabia has made appreciable enhancements to its debt profile. It has diversified its traders, working in implementing a unified sovereign asset and legal responsibility administration framework, addressed rate of interest threat, and mitigated overseas trade threat. But key concerns stay.

Aligning Numerous and Related Stakeholders

The SALM challenge requires super effort to coordinate and align goals throughout varied authorities entities. Given NDMC naturally has completely different priorities from different authorities entities, conflicts might come up.

For instance, the central financial institution (SAMA) focuses on macroeconomics and worth stability. In the meantime, debt administration (NDMC) prioritizes affordable debt price and threat construction. So NDMC goals for an extended horizon of debt administration with acceptable threat/reward mechanics, whereas the central financial institution targets shorter-horizon pricing stability.

The actions of those essential entities ultimately affect the general financial coverage and, in the end, public debt sustainability. Coordination will subsequently be essential to attaining mutually agreed expectations.

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Credit score Score Businesses

NDMC and the MoF have gotten extra clear round debt issuances, with common reporting of borrowing plans and related statistics. That is bettering their standing with main credit score businesses.

Late final 12 months, Moody’s and Fitch credit standing businesses rated Saudi Arabia A1 and A, respectively, and revised the outlook from “unfavourable” to “steady”. The experiences point out NDMC should preserve an in depth grip on debt and credit score company expectations. For instance, Moody’s has estimated that “the dimensions of public debt to GDP within the coming years would fall between 25% and 30%, surpassing its estimations for comparable nations with the identical credit standing of 35%–40%”.

Credit standing businesses usually rationalize the ranking and level to dangers that will have an effect on creditworthiness and solvency, whether or not within the brief or long run. Nevertheless, these numbers and expectations are solely high-level tips, and falling wanting them is suitable with good motive, similar to financial development.

Contingent Liabilities

A helicopter view is critical to know the general debt and non-debt obligations. Having one gives perception past the obvious debt and into different contingent liabilities. The SALM initiative should handle this wider side to raised grasp the potential ripple impact when crises strike.

Take into account stock-flow changes. It’s a metric utilized in calculating the potential realization of the contingent legal responsibility or what I name “shadow debt.” Usually, amid crises or in the course of the time main as much as them, the metallization threat of contingent liabilities will increase. An instance of contingent legal responsibility is authorities ensures or future dedicated obligations. Including to the identical metric, it contains the uncomfortable side effects of financial instability, similar to a unfavourable valuation impression of the belongings or overseas trade. Built-in asset and legal responsibility administration reduces the chance of such occasions or at the least assists in anticipating and proactively figuring out them.

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The place To Subsequent?

The NDMC 2022 Annual Borrowing Plan expects debt to remain at SAR 938 billion until year-end 2024, whereas concentrating on refinancing actions for current maturities of round SAR 43 billion throughout 2022. Saudi Arabia’s development expectations are a wholesome 4.8% for subsequent 12 months (versus 4.4% globally, as per the January 2022 IMF report), accompanied by an anticipated surplus within the 2022 finances (the primary in eight years). In keeping with the MoF report, Saudi’s public debt to GDP is anticipated to proceed its lower-trending journey from a excessive of 32.5% in 2019 to 25.4% in 2024.

Nonetheless, the surge within the oil costs — a constructive exterior issue exterior the whole management of Saudi Arabia — has contributed to the anticipated debt reductions and bettering debt sustainability prospects. To insulate itself from worth shocks, I can see Saudi Arabia fiercely working to stabilize its deficit fluctuations through elements that it could actually management higher and stimulate extra development alternatives.

Considered one of these initiatives is the Saudi sovereign wealth fund, the Public Funding Fund (PIF). It goals to handle round US $1.1 trillion of belongings by 2025 and be one of many main sovereign wealth funds globally. One other promising nationwide program is the mining funding within the nation. With US $1.3 trillion of untapped minerals in Saudi Arabia the objective is to scale the sector’s contributions to the GDP from US $17 billion to US $64 billion by 2030.

Total, it seems Saudi’s public debt is progressing nicely in direction of sustainability. NDMC’s problem is to make use of the present financial situations and the exterior constructive elements to cement its place and speed up its formidable plans.

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All posts are the opinion of the writer. As such, they shouldn’t be construed as funding recommendation, nor do the opinions expressed essentially mirror the views of CFA Institute or the writer’s employer.

Picture credit score: ©Getty Photographs/Ayman Aljammaz


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Muadh Alhusaini, CFA, FRM, CAIA

Muadh Alhusaini, CFA, FRM, CAIA, is a co-founder and managing companion at Ehata Monetary, a specialised unbiased advisory home centered on market threat administration and hedging. Earlier than pursuing the advisory profession, Alhusaini spent almost 10 years as a senior banker within the international markets and financing options with native and worldwide banks. In his present function, he demonstrated the power to mobilize sturdy, progressive monetary risk-management options to top-tier companies, sovereign entities, non-public fairness companies, and publicly listed firms throughout the Saudi market. Alhusaini is expert in designing and delivering improvement packages, seminars, and revealed columns centered on monetary threat administration, funding, and governance tendencies. He holds quite a few board and committee memberships with main establishments in Saudi Arabia. He’s a CFA charterholder and holds the Monetary Threat Supervisor (FRM) certification and is a Licensed Different Funding Analyst (CAIA).

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